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Research Instruments

Process Measures

Helpful Aspects of Therapy Form
Brief Structured Recall
Revised Session Reactions Scale
Therapist Experiential Session Form



Outcome Measures

Client Change Interview Protocol
Simplified Personal Questionnaire Procedure

Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS)
Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (Sail)


Focusing-Related Measures

The Experiencing Scale
Post Focusing Questionnaire (PFC)
Post Focusing Checklist
A Short Version of the Post-Focusing Check-List: PFC-2
Cuestionario PFC-2
Clearing A Space Checklist
Focusing-Oriented Session Report
Therapist Ratings of Client Focusing Activity
The Grindler Body Attitudes Scale

 


Helpful Aspects of Therapy (HAT) Form. A brief, open-ended questionnaire completed by clients after each session. Clients are asked to describe in their own words the most helpful event in the session, and to rate how helpful it was. They are also asked about other helpful or hindering events in the session. (References: Llewelyn, S. (1988). Psychological therapy as viewed by clients and therapists. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 223-238. Also, Elliott, R., Slatick, E., & Urman, M. Qualitative Change Process Research on Psychotherapy: Alternative Strategies. (in press). In J. Frommer and D. Rennie (Eds.), The Methodology of Qualitative Psychotherapy Research. Lengerich: Germany: Pabst Science Publishers.) For more information, contact Robert Elliott (relliot@uoft02.utoledo.edu).


Brief Structured Recall (BSR) is a form of tape-assisted recall which is used to identify significant change events within therapy sessions and to obtain information about clients' and therapists' moment-to-moment experiencing during these significant events. The protocol provided here was developed by Robert Elliott, and includes the Procedure Manual, the Client Event Recall Form, the Client One-month Review Form, the Therapist Event Recall Form, the Therapist One-Month Review Form.


The Revised Session Reaction Scale (RSRS) is a brief client-report measure of the experienced effects of therapy sessions. It consists of three subscales derived from previous research on the reactions of significant therapy events (Elliott, 1985; Elliott, Clark, & Kemeny, 1988; Elliott, James et al., 1985). The Task Reactions subscale consists of 10 items, while the Relationship Reactions subscale consists of four items. These two subscales together are are combined to create a 14-item Helpful Reactions scale. The third scale, Hindering Reactions, consists of eight items. Finally, an "other reaction" item was included as a check on scale completeness. All items are rated on 5-point adjective-anchored scales (1 = not at all, 2 = slightly, 3 = somewhat, 4 = pretty much, 5 = very much). For each item, clients were asked to rate the item on the basis of the descriptor that best fits their experience.


The Therapist Experiential Session Form-2 is a therapist self-rating measure used to assess therapistsí views of just-completed sessions of Process-Experiential (PE) therapy. It assesses key aspects of the PE therapy model, and is divided into 7 sections: Process Notes; Overall Session Ratings; Client Modes of Engagement; Process-Experiential Treatment Principles (rated for quality of implementation); PE Tasks (13 tasks each rated for presence, quality and degree of task resolution; PE Experiential Response Modes (16 types of therapist response); and Nonexperiential Interventions (6 content directive responses).

Using an earlier version of the TESF, ratings from 688 PE therapy sessions were analyzed, using in a naturalistic sample of clients seen at the Center for the Study Experiential Psychotherapy. TESF data were used to create nonredundant, internally reliable indices within each section of the measure, yielding 16 subscales. Internal reliability were adequate the 16 subscales. These subscales were then used to create a taxonomy of different types of PE therapy session. More details from this study can be found at: http://www.experiential-researchers/instruments/elliott/tes_form.html


 

Change Interview. A 30-60 minute qualitative interview that can be administered at the end of therapy or every 8 - 10 sessions. It includes questions about what the client sees as having changed over the course of therapy, what the client attributes those changes to, and helpful and nonhelpful aspects of therapy. The interview also includes the option of asking the client to review and talk about his or her pretreatment self-ratings or self-descriptions. (Reference: Elliott, R., Slatick, E., & Urman, M. Qualitative Change Process Research on Psychotherapy: Alternative Strategies. (in press). In J. Frommer and D. Rennie (Eds.), The Methodology of Qualitative Psychotherapy Research. Lengerich: Germany: Pabst Science Publishers.) For more information, contact Robert Elliott (relliot@uoft02.utoledo.edu).


Simplified Personal Questionnaire (PQ). The Simplified Personal Questionnaire is an individualized change measure, usually consisting of 10 problems that a client would like to work on in his or her therapy. Its brevity makes it suitable as a weekly outcome measure. Included is a set of instructions and rating forms for creating Personal Questionnaires, a process that takes about 30 minutes. We are currently writing a paper on the psychometric properties of the PQ. Reliability and validity appear to be good (mean inter-item reliability: .82; one-week test-retest reliability: .77; convergent validity with other measures of client distress typically ranges from .4 to .6) For more information, contact Robert Elliott (relliot@uoft02.utoledo.edu).


 

The Experiencing Scale: From the theoretical work of Eugene Gendlin, it rates the quality of an individual's experiencing of himself as revealed in verbal or written communications. There is a consistent, positive relationship between successful therapeutic outcome and client experiencing level. The rating procedure can be taught in eight training sessions to make standardized, replicable ratings. Intraclass reliabilities for ratings are typically in the 80s. Its uses are not restricted to therapy. It has been used in over 60 studies.


Post Focusing Questionnaire, Post Focusing Checklist: These instruments were developed as quick measures for whether the person focused. Both are self rating scales, one is short answer responses and the other is a checklist. Alemany later developed an even shorter form of the PFC, finding which questions best discriminated the subjects who focus from those who do not. The measures are designed for use after focusing sessions in which explicit focusing instructions are given.


The FSR is a post-therapy session questionnaire that is filled out by the client immediately after the session. It has three sub scales which indicate the amounts of three types of focusing activity that occurred in the session. The clientís behavior in the session is scaled for amount of focusing activity (the sub scales do not scale individual persons for the trait of focusing ability). These sub scales had the following characteristics when applied to a sample of 54 respondents, including 42 private practice clients in ongoing psychotherapy, in a total of 137 sessions:

Sub Scale Name Number of items Internal consistency (coefficient alpha)
Focusing Attitude  5 .71
Opening of Feelings  8 .81
Carry Forward 11 .89

No item was included on more than one sub scale. The three sub scales had intercorrelations between .23 and .37, indicating some common variance. There is evidence that the three sub scales differentially reflect features of the session, as indicated by convergent and discriminant correlations with therapist ratings of the same constructs (see the TRCFA).


The TRCFA is a post-therapy session questionnaire that is filled out by the therapist immediately after the session. It has three sub scales which indicate the amounts of three types of focusing activity that occurred in the session. The clientís behavior in the session is scaled for amount of focusing activity (the sub scales do not scale individual persons for the trait of focusing ability). These sub scales had the following characteristics when applied to a sample of 54 respondents, including 42 private practice clients in ongoing psychotherapy, in a total of 155 sessions:

Sub Scale Name Number of items Internal consistency (coefficient alpha)
Focusing AttitudeTx 2 .78
Opening of FeelingsTx 2 .76
Carry ForwardTx 2 .76

No item was included on more than one sub scale. The three sub scales had intercorrelations between .49 and .59, indicating common variance. There is evidence that the three sub scales differentially reflect features of the session, as indicated by convergent and discriminant correlations with therapist ratings of the same constructs (see the FSR).


The Grindler Body Attitudes Scale was designed for use in the study, Focusing: An Adjunct Treatment for Adaptive Recovery from Cancer, to investigate health-related attitudes toward the body after illness. This measure rates the degree to which a person who has had cancer is maintaining a positive attitude towards his/her body and the extent to which the body is seen as capable of healing. The range of possible scores is 30-150. Because this was the first use of the Grindler Body Attitudes Scale no norms were available. We evaluated its validity by correlating it with the Secord and Jourard Body Cathexis Scale. (Secord, P. and Jourard, S. (1953). The appraisal of body cathexis: Body cathexis and the self. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 343-347.) The two scales correlated significantly (r=.62, p=.001) We evaluated the reliability of the scale using a Spearman-Brown Split Half Reliability Test and found a reliability coefficient of .88, which showed the internal consistency of the questionnaire.

 

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Last modified: 18 April 2008